The epidemiology of infections after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is limited. We aimed to study the epidemiology and risk factors of infections after LDLT. The medical records of 223 adult patients who underwent LDLT from January 1, 2000 to August 31, 2015 were reviewed for all infections occurring up to 1 year. We estimated the cumulative incidence of infection using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Risk factors were analyzed with time-dependent Cox regression modeling. The majority of patients were Caucasian (94.6%) and male (64.6%), and the median age at transplantation was 55 years. The most common indication for transplantation was primary sclerosing cholangitis (37.7%). A total of 122 patients developed an infection during the follow-up period (1-year cumulative event rate of 56%), with the majority (66%) of these occurring within 30 days after transplantation. Enterococcus sp. was the most frequent pathogen identified. Multivariate analysis showed that increased Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (per 10-point change: hazard ratio [HR], 1.59), history of recurrent infections prior to transplant (HR, 2.01), Roux-en-Y anastomosis (HR, 2.37), increased log-number of packed red blood cell transfusions (HR, 1.39), and biliary complications (HR, 4.26) were independently associated with a higher risk of infection. Infections occur commonly after LDLT, with most infections occurring early and being related to the hepatobiliary system. Higher MELD scores, the type of biliary anastomosis, presence of biliary complications, and prior pretransplant infections are independently associated with a higher risk for infections. Liver Transplantation 23 465–477 2017 AASLD.
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