Enhanced Protein Translation Underlies Improved Metabolic and Physical Adaptations to Different Exercise Training Modes in Young and Old Humans

Matthew M. Robinson, Surendra Dasari, Adam R. Konopka, Matthew L. Johnson, S. Manjunatha, Raul Ruiz Esponda, Rickey E. Carter, Ian R Lanza, K Sreekumaran Nair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

129 Scopus citations

Abstract

The molecular transducers of benefits from different exercise modalities remain incompletely defined. Here we report that 12 weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval (HIIT), resistance (RT), and combined exercise training enhanced insulin sensitivity and lean mass, but only HIIT and combined training improved aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. HIIT revealed a more robust increase in gene transcripts than other exercise modalities, particularly in older adults, although little overlap with corresponding individual protein abundance was noted. HIIT reversed many age-related differences in the proteome, particularly of mitochondrial proteins in concert with increased mitochondrial protein synthesis. Both RT and HIIT enhanced proteins involved in translational machinery irrespective of age. Only small changes of methylation of DNA promoter regions were observed. We provide evidence for predominant exercise regulation at the translational level, enhancing translational capacity and proteome abundance to explain phenotypic gains in muscle mitochondrial function and hypertrophy in all ages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-592
Number of pages12
JournalCell Metabolism
Volume25
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 7 2017

Keywords

  • aging
  • exercise
  • human
  • insulin clamp
  • interval
  • methylation
  • proteome
  • skeletal muscle
  • tracer
  • transcriptome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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