Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a technique for measuring phasic release of neurotransmitters with millisecond temporal resolution. The current data are captured by carbon fiber microelectrodes, and non-Faradaic current is subtracted from the background current to extract the Faradaic redox current through a background subtraction algorithm. FSCV is able to measure neurotransmitter concentrations in vivo down to the nanomolar scale, making it a very robust and useful technique for probing neurotransmitter release dynamics and communication across neural networks. In this study, we describe a technique that can further lower the limit of detection of FSCV. By taking advantage of a "waveform steering"technique and by amplifying only the oxidation peak of dopamine to reduce noise fluctuations, we demonstrate the ability to measure dopamine concentrations down to 0.17 nM. Waveform steering is a technique to dynamically alter the input waveform to ensure that the background current remains stable over time. Specifically, the region of the input waveform in the vicinity of the dopamine oxidation potential (∼0.6 V) is kept flat. Thus, amplification of the input waveform will amplify only the Faradaic current, lowering the existing limit of detection for dopamine from 5.48 to 0.17 nM, a 32-fold reduction, and for serotonin, it lowers the limit of detection from 57.3 to 1.46 nM, a 39-fold reduction compared to conventional FSCV. Finally, the applicability of steered FSCV to in vivo dopamine detection was also demonstrated in this study. In conclusion, steered FSCV might be used as a neurochemical monitoring tool for enhancing detection sensitivity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)