OBJECTIVES: Periampullary adenomas are an increasingly recognized condition, both in those with familial adenomatous polyposis syndromes (FAP) as well as sporadic cases. Endoscopic management has been advocated for these lesions without differentiating between these two patient groups regarding aim of therapy. The aims of this study were to determine the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic surveillance and ablative therapy of periampullary adenomas in patients with both sporadic and FAP-associated lesions. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 59 patients with FAP and 32 with sporadic lesions who were all enrolled in a program of endoscopic surveillance and ablative therapy. Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 1-134 months). RESULTS: Ampullary ablative therapy has resulted in return to normal histology in 44 and 34% of sporadic and FAP-associated lesions, respectively. Complications of endoscopic therapy were mild in 12 patients and severe in 3 patients: the latter category involved one occurrence of asymptomatic duodenal stenosis and one occurrence of postcoagulation syndrome - both after Nd-YAG laser therapy - and necrotizing pancreatitis after ampullary biopsy in one patient. Thirteen patients have been referred for surgical intervention. There has been no mortality and no cases of advanced malignancy missed by endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic surveillance and ablative therapy of periampullary lesions is safe and can be effective, although eradication of ampullary tissue requires multiple ablative sessions.
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