Historically, gallstone therapy has been surgery. Gastrointestinal endoscopists and radiologists are now becoming increasingly active in the definitive management of both cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Today, for uncomplicated cholelithiasis and for many cases of choledocholithiasis in patients without increased surgical risk, biliary surgery remains the recommended treatment by internists and surgeons alike. However, with an increased battery of available therapeutic modalities, management decisions and strategies are becoming more complex and the treatment of biliary stone disease in the future will be different than it was in the past.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing