Endoscopy plays an important role in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of Barrett esophagus. Short-segment (<2-3 cm) and traditional long-segment (>2-3 cm) Barrett esophagus are distinguished solely on the length of metaplastic tissue above the esophagogastric junction. The histologic hallmark of intestinal metaplasia is required to confirm diagnosis. Biopsy specimens obtained from tissue of presumed Barrett esophagus or an irregular Z line confirm metaplastic glandular mucosa and permit evaluation of dysplastic or neoplastic changes. In the appropriate clinical setting, the use of adjunctive diagnostic techniques may facilitate the diagnosis of Barrett esophagus and sequelae such as dysplasia. Chromoendoscopy with high-resolution or magnified endoscopy is simple, safe, and desirable for surveillance but requires additional procedural time. The use of light-induced fluorescence endoscopy and light-scattering spectroscopy(ie, optical biopsy) is appealing for the diagnosis and characterization of suspicious lesions. Adjunctive endoscopic techniques and adherence to a protocol for performing biopsies facilitate the early detection and subsequent surveillance of Barrett esophagus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas