Endobronchial techniques may be beneficial in patients with lung cancer. Photodynamic therapy may be used with intent to cure in some operable superficial squamous cell carcinomas and in some cases of high surgical risk or refusal to undergo surgery. Tumor resection with the Nd:YAG laser, implantation of prosthetic airway stents, and brachytherapy are palliative methods used in inoperable disease. These palliative treatments, used alone or concurrently, may result in remarkable but temporary improvement in symptoms.
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