Encoding strategies for three-direction phase-contrast MR imaging of flow.

N. J. Pelc, Matthew A Bernstein, A. Shimakawa, G. H. Glover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

313 Scopus citations


Three encoding strategies for the measurement of flow velocities in arbitrary directions with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging are presented; their noise and dynamic range performance are compared by means of theoretical analysis and computer simulation. A six-point measurement strategy is shown to be quite inefficient in terms of velocity variance per unit time. A simple four-point method exhibits equal dynamic range; its noise depends on flow direction but on average is equal to that of the six-point method. An alternate, balanced four-point method has noise that is direction independent and has, depending on implementation, possibly lower noise levels. Either four-point method is more efficient and is preferred over the six-point approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-413
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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