Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that typically presents with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, brainstem, diencephalic, and cerebral syndromes. Up to 80% of NMOSD patients have a circulating pathogenic autoantibody that targets the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). The discovery of AQP4-IgG transformed our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and its possible treatment targets. Monoclonal antibodies targeting terminal complement (eculizumab), CD19 (inebilizumab), and the interleukin-6 receptor (satralizumab) have demonstrated efficacy in NMOSD attack prevention in recent phase 3 trials and have gained subsequent regulatory approval in the USA and other countries. We aim to review the evidence supporting the efficacy of these new drugs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)