The development of medical emergencies related to the underlying disease or as a result of complications of therapy are common in patients with hematologic or solid tumors. These oncological emergencies can occur as an initial presentation or in a patient with an established diagnosis and are encountered in all medical care settings, ranging from primary care to the emergency department and various subspecialty environments. Therefore, it is critically important that all physicians have a working knowledge of the potential oncological emergencies that may present in their practice and how to provide the most effective care without delay. This article reviews the most common oncological emergencies and provides practical guidance for initial management of these patients.
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