Purpose: Based on the success of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) for multiple myeloma, HSCT is being used to treat patients with primary systemic amyloidosis (AL). This article addresses the extent to which eligibility to undergo HSCT is a favorable prognostic feature and explores prognostic factors within the subset of eligible patients. Patients and Methods: The Mayo Clinic amyloid database was queried for all patients with AL seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1983 through 1997 who would have been eligible for peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation. Inclusion criteria included biopsy-proven amyloid, symptomatic disease, absence of a clinical diagnosis of multiple myeloma, age ≤ 70 years, cardiac interventricular septal thickness ≤ 15 mm, cardiac ejection fraction more than 55%, serum creatinine ≤ 2 mg/dL, and direct bilirubin ≤ 2.0 mg/dL. Results: Median age was 56 years (range, 25 to 70) with 79 (34%) older than 60 years. One hundred patients had early cardiac involvement; 41, hepatic involvement; 167, renal involvement; and 39, nerve involvement. The 229 patients have had a median follow-up of 52 months, and 151 have died. The median survival was 42 months with 5- and 10-year survival rates of 36% and 15%, respectively. Important predictors of survival were size of M-component in 24-hour urine, number of involved organs, alkaline phosphatase, performance score, and weight loss. Conclusion: The same patients who are eligible for HSCT are a good-risk population who do relatively well with chemotherapy (median survival, 42 months), substantially better than the expected median survival of 18 months for all patients with AL. A randomized trial is needed to assess the true effect of HSCT.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research