Seamless integration of biological components with electrochemical sensors is critical in the development of microdevices for cell analysis. The present paper describes the integration miniature Au electrodes next to immune cells (macrophages) in order to detect cell-secreted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Photopatterning of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels was used to both immobilize horseradish peroxidase molecules onto electrodes and to define regions for cell attachment in the vicinity of sensing electrodes. Electrodes micropatterned in such a manner were enclosed inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) fluid conduits and incubated with macrophages. The cells attached onto the exposed glass regions in the vicinity of the electrodes and nowhere else on the non-fouling PEG hydrogel surface. A microfluidic device was converted into an electrochemical cell by placing flow-through Ag/AgCl reference and Pt wire counter electrodes at the outlet and inlet, respectively. This microdevice with integrated H2O2-sensing electrodes had sensitivity of 27 μA/cm2 mM with a limit of detection of 2 μM. Importantly, this microdevice allowed controllable seeding of macrophages next to electrodes, activation of these cells and on-chip monitoring of H2O2 release in real time. In the future, this biosensor platform may be utilized for monitoring of macrophage responses to pathogens or for the study of inflammatory signaling in micropatterned cell cultures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry