Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor that affects children and young adults. Despite advances in the use of combination chemotherapy regimens, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma remains a key determinant of patient outcome. Recently, highly potent small molecule inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling through the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-family enzymes, tankyrases 1 & 2 (Tnks1/2), have been considered as possible chemotherapy sensitizing agents. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of the highly specific Tnks1/2 inhibitor IWR-1-endo to sensitize chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma to doxorubicin. We found that IWR-1-endo significantly inhibited cellular efflux, as measured by cellular retention of Calcein AM and doxorubicin. In a model of doxorubicin resistant osteosarcoma, pre-treatment with IWR-1-endo strongly sensitized to doxorubicin. This sensitization reduced the doxorubicin IC50 in doxorubicin-resistant cells, but not in chemotherapy naïve cells and caused doxorubicin-treated cells to accumulate at the G2/M checkpoint. Further, we found that sensitization with IWR-1-endo produced increased γH2AX foci formation, indicating increased DNA damage by doxorubicin. Taken together, our findings show that IWR-1-endo increases cellular responses to doxorubicin, by blocking efflux transport in a drug-resistant model of osteosarcoma.
- Efflux transport
- Multidrug resistance protein 1
- Tankyrase inhibitor
- Wnt signaling
ASJC Scopus subject areas