Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1)-associated adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive malignant disorder. Intensive conventional chemotherapy regimens and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have failed to improve outcomes in ATLL. Allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) is commonly offered as front-line consolidation despite lack of randomized controlled trials. We performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature using PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane reviews on September 10, 2018. We extracted data on clinical outcomes related to benefits (complete response [CR], overall survival [OS], and progression-free survival [PFS]) and harms (relapse and nonrelapse mortality [NRM]), independently by 2 authors. Our search strategy identified a total of 801 references. Nineteen studies (n = 2446 patients) were included in the systematic review; however, only 18 studies (n = 1767 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Reduced intensity conditioning regimens were more commonly prescribed (52%). Bone marrow (50%) and peripheral blood (40%) were more frequently used as stem cell source. The pooled post-allografting CR, OS, and PFS rates were 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57% to 87%), 40% (95% CI, 33% to 46%), and 37% (95% CI, 27% to 48%), respectively. Pooled relapse and NRM rates were 36% (95% CI, 28% to 43%) and 29% (95% CI, 21% to 37%), respectively. The heterogeneity among the included studies was generally high. These results support the use of allo-HCT as an effective treatment for patients with ATLL, yielding pooled OS rates of 40%, but relapse still occurs in over one-third of cases. Future studies should evaluate strategies to help reduce relapse in patients with ATLL undergoing allo-HCT.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- HTLV-1–associated adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)
- Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)
ASJC Scopus subject areas