Efficacy and safety of combined endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous occlusion (BRTOcc) of gastrorenal shunts in patients with bleeding gastric fundal varices

Fateh Bazerbachi, Akira Dobashi, Swarup Kumar, Sanjay Misra, Navtej S. Buttar, Louis Michel Wong Kee Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Endoscopic cyanoacrylate (glue) injection of fundal varices may result in life-threatening embolic adverse events through spontaneous gastrorenal shunts (GRSs). Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous occlusion (BRTOcc) of GRSs during cyanoacrylate injection may prevent serious systemic glue embolization through the shunt. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined endoscopic-interventional radiologic (BRTOcc) approach for the treatment of bleeding fundal varices. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the data of patients who underwent the combined procedure for acutely bleeding fundal varices between January 2010 and April 2018. Data were extracted for patient demographics, clinical and endoscopic findings, technical details, and adverse events of the endoscopic-BRTOcc approach and patient outcomes. Results: We identified 30 patients (13 [43.3%] women; median age 58 [range, 25-92] years) with gastroesophageal varices type 2 (53.3%, 16/30) and isolated gastric varices type 1 (46.7%, 14/30) per Sarin classification, and median clinical and endoscopic follow-up of 151 (range, 4-2,513) days and 98 (range, 3-2,373) days, respectively. The median volume of octyl-cyanoacrylate: Lipiodol injected was 7 (range, 4-22) mL. Procedure-related adverse events occurred in three (10.0%) patients, including transient fever, non-life-threatening pulmonary glue embolism, and an injection-site ulcer bleed. Complete gastric variceal obturation was achieved in 18 of 21 patients (85.7%) at endoscopic follow-up. Delayed variceal rebleeding was confirmed in one patient (3.3%) and suspected in two patients (6.7%). Although no procedure-related deaths occurred, the overall mortality rate was 46.7%, primarily from liver-disease progression and co-morbidities. Conclusion: The combined endoscopic-BRTOcc procedure is a relatively safe and effective technique for bleeding fundal varices, with a high rate of variceal obturation and a low rate of serious adverse events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-218
Number of pages7
JournalGastroenterology Report
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

Keywords

  • balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous occlusion
  • cyanoacrylate injection
  • gastric variceal bleeding
  • gastric varices
  • gastrorenal shunt

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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