Context: Estrogens amplify spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion, whereas they diminish GH-dependent insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in a dose-dependent manner. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including tamoxifen and toremifene, are widely adjunctively used in breast and prostate cancer. Although some endocrine effects of tamoxifen are known, few data are available for toremifene. Objective: To explore sex-dependent effects of toremifene on spontaneous 10-hour overnight GH secretion, followed by GH-releasing hormone-ghrelin stimulation. Additionally, effects on IGF-I, its binding proteins, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were quantified. Participants and Design: Twenty men and 20 women, within an allowable age range of 50 to 80 years, volunteered for this double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective crossover study. Ten-minute blood sampling was done for 10 hours overnight and then for 2hours after combinedGH-releasing hormone-ghrelin injection. Main Outcome Measures: PulsatileGHand stimulatedGHsecretion, and fasting levels of IGF-I, IGFbinding protein (IGFBP)1, IGFBP3, and SHBG. Results: Toremifene did not enhance pulsatile or stimulated GH secretion, but decreased IGF-I by 20% in men and women. IGFBP3 was unchanged, whereas while IGFBP1 and SHBG increased in both sexes to a similar extent. Conclusions: The expected rise in spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion under the diminished negative feedback restraint of powered IGF-I favors a central inhibitory antiestrogenic effect of toremifene. Estrogenic effects of toremifene on the liver were present, as evidenced by increased IGFBP1 and SHBG levels. Men and women responded to this SERM comparably.
- Breast cancer
- Growth hormone
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism