Effects of a Pomegranate Fruit Extract rich in punicalagin on oxidation-sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress and atherogenesis

Filomena de Nigris, Sharon Williams-Ignarro, Vincenzo Sica, Lilach O. Lerman, Francesco P. D'Armiento, Russell E. Byrns, Amelia Casamassimi, Daniela Carpentiero, Concetta Schiano, Daigo Sumi, Carmela Fiorito, Louis J. Ignarro, Claudio Napoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Atherosclerosis is enhanced in arterial segments exposed to disturbed flow. Perturbed shear stress increases the expression of oxidation-sensitive responsive genes (such as ELK-1 and p-CREB). Polyphenolic antioxidants contained in the juice derived from the pomegranate contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress and atherogenesis during disturbed shear stress. Aim of the study: To evaluate the effects of intervention with the Pomegranate Fruit Extract (PFE) rich in polyphones (punicalagin, which is a potent antioxidant) on ELK-1, p-CREB, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression induced by high shear stress in vitro and in vivo. Results: At the doses used in the study, both the PFE and the regular pomegranate juice concentrate reduced the activation of ELK-1 and p-CREB and increased eNOS expression (which was decreased by perturbed shear stress) in cultured human endothelial cells and in atherosclerosis-prone areas of hypercholesterolemic mice. PFE and pomegranate juice increased cyclic GMP levels while there was no significant effect of both compounds on the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline. Administration of these compounds to hypercholesterolemic mice significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis and isoprostane levels and increased nitrates. This protective effect was relevant with PFE. Vasomotor reactivity was improved and EC25 values in response to Ach and NONOate were significantly increased in treated mice in comparison to controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that the proatherogenic effects induced by perturbed shear stress can be also reversed by chronic administration of PFE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)414-423
Number of pages10
JournalCardiovascular research
Volume73
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2007

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • ELK-1
  • Nitric oxide
  • Polyphenols
  • Pomegranate
  • Shear stress
  • eNOS
  • p-CREB

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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    de Nigris, F., Williams-Ignarro, S., Sica, V., Lerman, L. O., D'Armiento, F. P., Byrns, R. E., Casamassimi, A., Carpentiero, D., Schiano, C., Sumi, D., Fiorito, C., Ignarro, L. J., & Napoli, C. (2007). Effects of a Pomegranate Fruit Extract rich in punicalagin on oxidation-sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress and atherogenesis. Cardiovascular research, 73(2), 414-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.08.021