Most of the research on multiple sclerosis (MS) has focused on the early events that trigger demyelination and subsequent remyelination. Less attention has been given to the factors that directly mediate the demyelination that is the hallmark of the disease. Effector cells or molecules are those factors directly responsible for mediating the damage in the disease. Similarly, there are effector molecules that are critical for remyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). By understanding those effector molecules in demyelination and remyelination that directly influence the pathologic process, we should be able to generate specific therapies with the greatest potential for benefiting MS patients. This review focuses on effector cells and molecules that are critical for demyelination and remyelination in MS but also in experimental models of the disease including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), virus-induced models of demyelination (Theiler's virus, murine hepatitis virus), and toxic models of demyelination (lysolecithin, ethidium bromide, and cuprizone). These are models in which the effector molecules for demyelination and remyelination have been most precisely evaluated.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Clinical Neurology