Effectiveness of contact precautions to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive care units

Karim Khader, Alun Thomas, W. Charles Huskins, Vanessa Stevens, Lindsay T. Keegan, Lindsay Visnovsky, Matthew H. Samore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Contact precautions for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are under increasing scrutiny, in part due to limited clinical trial evidence. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from the Strategies to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria in Intensive Care Units (STAR∗ICU) trial to model the use of contact precautions in individual intensive care units (ICUs). Data included admission and discharge times and surveillance test results. We used a transmission model to estimate key epidemiological parameters, including the effect of contact precautions on transmission. Finally, we performed multivariate meta-regression to identify ICU-level factors associated with contact precaution effects. Results: We found that 21% of admissions (n = 2194) were placed on contact precautions, with most for MRSA and VRE. We found little evidence that contact precautions reduced MRSA transmission. The estimated change in transmission attributed to contact precautions was -16% (95% credible interval, -38% to 15%). VRE transmission was higher than MRSA transmission due to contact precautions, but not significantly. In our meta-regression, we did not identify associations between ICU-level factors and estimated contact precaution effects. Importation and transmission were higher for VRE than for MRSA, but clearance rates were lower for VRE than for MRSA. Conclusions: We found little evidence that contact precautions implemented during the STAR∗ICU trial reduced transmission of MRSA or VRE. We did find important differences in the transmission dynamics between MRSA and VRE. Differences in organism and healthcare setting may impact the efficacy of contact precautions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S42-S49
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume72
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2021

Keywords

  • Contact precautions
  • Effectiveness
  • MRSA
  • Transmission
  • VRE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effectiveness of contact precautions to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive care units'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this