Effect of Smoking During Radiotherapy, Respiratory Insufficiency, and Hemoglobin Levels on Outcome in Patients Irradiated for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Dirk Rades, Cornelia Setter, Steven E. Schild, Juergen Dunst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the effect of smoking during radiotherapy (RT), respiratory insufficiency before RT, hemoglobin levels during RT, and additional factors on overall survival, locoregional control (LRC), and metastasis-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The following factors were investigated in 181 patients who underwent RT for non-small-cell lung cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, histologic type, grade, T/N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, respiratory insufficiency before RT, pack-years, smoking during RT, and hemoglobin levels during RT. Additionally, in the 129 patients who did not undergo surgery, the effect of the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) (<60 Gy vs. 60 Gy vs. >60 Gy) on outcome was investigated. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.004), lower N stage (p = 0.040), surgery (p = 0.010), and no respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.023). A Karnofsky performance score >70 achieved borderline significance (p = 0.056). Improved LRC was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.007) and no smoking during RT (p = 0.029). Improved metastasis-free survival was associated with lower T stage (p < 0.001) and lower N stage (p < 0.001). In those patients who did not undergo surgery, an EQD2 of ≥60 Gy was associated with a better outcome than an EQD2 of <60 Gy. Furthermore, an EQD2 >60 Gy resulted in better LRC than did an EQD2 of ≤60 Gy. Conclusions: Smoking during RT had a significant effect on LRC, but we did not find that hemoglobin levels or respiratory insufficiency significantly affected LRC or metastasis-free survival in our patient population. Furthermore, our data suggest a dose-effect relationship in those patients who did not undergo surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1134-1142
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume71
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 15 2008

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hemoglobin
Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Respiratory Insufficiency
lungs
radiation therapy
Hemoglobins
Radiotherapy
Smoking
cancer
surgery
metastasis
Survival
Neoplasm Metastasis
dosage
chemotherapy
grade
Multivariate Analysis
Drug Therapy

Keywords

  • Hemoglobin levels
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer
  • Prognostic factors
  • Respiratory insufficiency
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiation

Cite this

Effect of Smoking During Radiotherapy, Respiratory Insufficiency, and Hemoglobin Levels on Outcome in Patients Irradiated for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. / Rades, Dirk; Setter, Cornelia; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen.

In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, Vol. 71, No. 4, 15.07.2008, p. 1134-1142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Purpose: To investigate the effect of smoking during radiotherapy (RT), respiratory insufficiency before RT, hemoglobin levels during RT, and additional factors on overall survival, locoregional control (LRC), and metastasis-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The following factors were investigated in 181 patients who underwent RT for non-small-cell lung cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, histologic type, grade, T/N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, respiratory insufficiency before RT, pack-years, smoking during RT, and hemoglobin levels during RT. Additionally, in the 129 patients who did not undergo surgery, the effect of the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) (<60 Gy vs. 60 Gy vs. >60 Gy) on outcome was investigated. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.004), lower N stage (p = 0.040), surgery (p = 0.010), and no respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.023). A Karnofsky performance score >70 achieved borderline significance (p = 0.056). Improved LRC was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.007) and no smoking during RT (p = 0.029). Improved metastasis-free survival was associated with lower T stage (p < 0.001) and lower N stage (p < 0.001). In those patients who did not undergo surgery, an EQD2 of ≥60 Gy was associated with a better outcome than an EQD2 of <60 Gy. Furthermore, an EQD2 >60 Gy resulted in better LRC than did an EQD2 of ≤60 Gy. Conclusions: Smoking during RT had a significant effect on LRC, but we did not find that hemoglobin levels or respiratory insufficiency significantly affected LRC or metastasis-free survival in our patient population. Furthermore, our data suggest a dose-effect relationship in those patients who did not undergo surgery.",
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AU - Setter, Cornelia

AU - Schild, Steven E.

AU - Dunst, Juergen

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N2 - Purpose: To investigate the effect of smoking during radiotherapy (RT), respiratory insufficiency before RT, hemoglobin levels during RT, and additional factors on overall survival, locoregional control (LRC), and metastasis-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The following factors were investigated in 181 patients who underwent RT for non-small-cell lung cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, histologic type, grade, T/N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, respiratory insufficiency before RT, pack-years, smoking during RT, and hemoglobin levels during RT. Additionally, in the 129 patients who did not undergo surgery, the effect of the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) (<60 Gy vs. 60 Gy vs. >60 Gy) on outcome was investigated. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.004), lower N stage (p = 0.040), surgery (p = 0.010), and no respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.023). A Karnofsky performance score >70 achieved borderline significance (p = 0.056). Improved LRC was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.007) and no smoking during RT (p = 0.029). Improved metastasis-free survival was associated with lower T stage (p < 0.001) and lower N stage (p < 0.001). In those patients who did not undergo surgery, an EQD2 of ≥60 Gy was associated with a better outcome than an EQD2 of <60 Gy. Furthermore, an EQD2 >60 Gy resulted in better LRC than did an EQD2 of ≤60 Gy. Conclusions: Smoking during RT had a significant effect on LRC, but we did not find that hemoglobin levels or respiratory insufficiency significantly affected LRC or metastasis-free survival in our patient population. Furthermore, our data suggest a dose-effect relationship in those patients who did not undergo surgery.

AB - Purpose: To investigate the effect of smoking during radiotherapy (RT), respiratory insufficiency before RT, hemoglobin levels during RT, and additional factors on overall survival, locoregional control (LRC), and metastasis-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The following factors were investigated in 181 patients who underwent RT for non-small-cell lung cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, histologic type, grade, T/N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, respiratory insufficiency before RT, pack-years, smoking during RT, and hemoglobin levels during RT. Additionally, in the 129 patients who did not undergo surgery, the effect of the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) (<60 Gy vs. 60 Gy vs. >60 Gy) on outcome was investigated. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.004), lower N stage (p = 0.040), surgery (p = 0.010), and no respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.023). A Karnofsky performance score >70 achieved borderline significance (p = 0.056). Improved LRC was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.007) and no smoking during RT (p = 0.029). Improved metastasis-free survival was associated with lower T stage (p < 0.001) and lower N stage (p < 0.001). In those patients who did not undergo surgery, an EQD2 of ≥60 Gy was associated with a better outcome than an EQD2 of <60 Gy. Furthermore, an EQD2 >60 Gy resulted in better LRC than did an EQD2 of ≤60 Gy. Conclusions: Smoking during RT had a significant effect on LRC, but we did not find that hemoglobin levels or respiratory insufficiency significantly affected LRC or metastasis-free survival in our patient population. Furthermore, our data suggest a dose-effect relationship in those patients who did not undergo surgery.

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