Oxygen-based free radicals produced by the enzyme xanthine oxidase may be involved in postischemic reperfusion injury. To determine whether oxypurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and the major metabolite of allopurinol, attenuates renal ischemic reperfusion injury, and, if so, to determine its most effective dose, oxypurinol 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg BW was infused 20 min prior to 20 min of complete renal ischemia in uniephrectomized rats. Animals treated with 5 mg/kg BW oxypurinol had significantly higher creatinine clearances on the first and second days postischemia than did untreated animals. In other animals given either buffered saline or oxypurinol at 5 mg/kg BW i.v. 20 min before ischemia, the inulin clearance (Cln) returned to near-control values within 1 h after ischemia. At 24 h there was a secondary decline in the C1n in animals receiving buffered saline, whereas in the animals treated with oxypurinol, this decline was less evident. In animals given oxypurinol at 5 mg/kg BW 40 min after ischemia, the Cln was significantly greater than in those receiving buffered saline. No changes in renal blood flow or renal vascular resistance were observed, suggesting that the effect of oxypurinol was not hemodynamically mediated. Analysis of plasma hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and oxypurinol levels by high-pressure liquid chromatography revealed that in the absence of oxypurinol, a significant increase in uric acid production occurred between 20 and 170 min after the period of ischemia. In the presence of oxypurinol, there was a marked reduction in the rate of production of uric acid for the first 3 h postischemia.
- Reperfusion injury
- Xanthine oxidase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine