Effect of longer-interval vs standard dosing of zoledronic acid on skeletal events in patients with bone metastases: A randomized clinical trial

Andrew L. Himelstein, Jared C. Foster, James L. Khatcheressian, John D. Roberts, Drew K. Seisler, Paul J. Novotny, Rui Qin, Ronald S. Go, Stephen S. Grubbs, Tracey O'Connor, Mario R. Velasco, Douglas Weckstein, Ann O'Mara, Charles Lawrence Loprinzi, Charles L. Shapiro

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE Zoledronic acid, a third-generation aminobisphosphonate, reduces the incidence of skeletal-related events and pain in patients with bone metastases. The optimal dosing interval for zoledronic acid is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine whether zoledronic acid administered every 12 weeks is noninferior to zoledronic acid administered every 4 weeks. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS Randomized, open-label clinical trial conducted at 269 academic and community sites in the United States. Patients (n = 1822) withmetastatic breast cancer,metastatic prostate cancer,or multiplemyelomawhohadat least 1 site ofboneinvolvement were enrolled betweenMay 2009 and April 2012; follow-up concluded in April 2014. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive zoledronic acid administered intravenously every 4 weeks (n = 911) vs every 12 weeks (n = 911) for 2 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end pointwas the proportion of patients having at least 1 skeletal-related event (defined as clinical fracture, spinal cord compression, radiation to bone, or surgery involving bone) within 2 years after randomization and a between-group absolute difference of 7%as the noninferiority margin. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with at least 1 skeletal-related event by disease type, pain as assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory (range, 0-10; higher scores indicate worse pain), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (range, 0-4; higher scores indicate worse disability), incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw, kidney dysfunction, skeletal morbidity rate (mean number of skeletal-related events per year), and, in a subset of 553 patients, suppression of bone turnover (assessed by C-terminal telopeptide levels). RESULTS Among 1822 patients who were randomized (median age, 65 years; 980 [53.8%] women; 855 with breast cancer, 689 with prostate cancer, and 278 with multiplemyeloma), 795 completed the study at 2 years. A total of 260 patients (29.5%) in the zoledronic acid every 4-week dosing group and 253 patients (28.6%) in the every 12-week dosing group experienced at least 1 skeletal-related event within 2 years of randomization (risk difference of -0.3%[1-sided 95%CI, -4%to ∞]; P < .001 for noninferiority). The proportions of skeletal-related events did not differ significantly between the every 4-week dosing group vs the every 12-week dosing group for patients with breast cancer, prostate cancer, or multiple myeloma. Pain scores, performance status scores, incidence of jaw osteonecrosis, and kidney dysfunction did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Skeletal morbidity rates were numerically identical in both groups, but bone turnover was greater (C-terminal telopeptide levels were higher) among patients who received zoledronic acid every 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with bone metastases due to breast cancer, prostate cancer, or multiplemyeloma, the use of zoledronic acid every 12 weeks compared with the standard dosing interval of every 4 weeks did not result in an increased risk of skeletal events over 2 years. This longer intervalmay be an acceptable treatment option.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-58
Number of pages11
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume317
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Himelstein, A. L., Foster, J. C., Khatcheressian, J. L., Roberts, J. D., Seisler, D. K., Novotny, P. J., Qin, R., Go, R. S., Grubbs, S. S., O'Connor, T., Velasco, M. R., Weckstein, D., O'Mara, A., Loprinzi, C. L., & Shapiro, C. L. (2017). Effect of longer-interval vs standard dosing of zoledronic acid on skeletal events in patients with bone metastases: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 317(1), 48-58. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.19425