The present study is a prospective, controlled, blinded trial of enalapril therapy in experimental immune complex (IC)-mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) in the nonhuman primate (cynomolgus monkey [CYN]). Two groups of CYNs were studied: those with established GN (study A) and those in which GN was being induced (study s). In study A, 12 CYNs had GN established by 8 or 10 weeks of daily intravenous infusion of bovine gamma- globulin (BGG). These CYNs were then assigned to either 4 weeks of daily oral enalapril therapy (n = 6) or daily oral placebo therapy (n = 6). The daily BGG infusions were continued during the 4 weeks of enalapril or placebo therapy. At the start of the enalapril/placebo protocol, the two groups were similar with respect to proteinuria and level of precipitating antibody to BGG, which determined the daily BGG dose. Renal biopsy was performed in each CYN at the start and end of the 4-week period of enalapril/placebo protocol. In study B, 15 normal CYNs were immunized to BGG over a period of 4 weeks. The CYNs were then assigned to daily oral enalapril therapy (n = 8) or placebo therapy (n = 7) based on level of precipitating antibody to BGG. At this point, daily intravenous BGG was begun along with daily enalapril or placebo for 8 weeks. Renal biopsy was performed in each CYN before and at the end of this 8-week period. In study A, enalapril therapy was associated with a significant decrease in mesangial matrix volume (mean change, -27.7%; P = 0,031) and a trend toward decreased mesangial matrix deposits (mean changes - 34.1%; P = 0.188). By contrast, in CYNs receiving placebo therapy, mesangial matrix volume increased compared with the enalapril group (P = 0.002) and mesangial deposits were unchanged. In study B, both the enalapril and placebo groups showed significant increases in mesangial matrix volume, mesangial deposits, mesangial cell volume, and capillary wall deposits during the 8 weeks of daily BGG infusion. However, none of the differences between the groups achieved statistical significance. Changes in mesangial cell volume and capillary wall deposits were also evaluated in study A and study B, but were not found to be different between the enalapril and placebo groups. In both study A and study B, blood pressure was lower in the enalapril groups. In conclusion, in the initial phase of IC-GN induction (0 to 8 weeks), enalapril therapy does not significantly influence the glomerular accumulation of mesangial matrix or immune deposits. However, in established IC-GN (after 8 Weeks of GN induction), enalapril therapy significantly decreases the further accumulation of mesangial matrix and may decrease the further accumulation of mesangial deposits. Whether this benefit of enalapril therapy was related to lower blood pressure or to other effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was not determined in this study.
- ACE inhibition
- Immune complex glomerulonephritis
ASJC Scopus subject areas