The effect of beer, ethanol (4% v/v), and corresponding volumetric (water), caloric (glucose 5.76% w/v), and osmotic (glucose 11.5% w/v) control solutions on pancreatic enzyme output and release of gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were studied in six healthy human subjects. As a simpler model of beer, yeast-fermented glucose solution (11.5% w/v) was also studied and compared with unfermented glucose (11.5% w/v). Among the control solutions, the two glucose solutions, but not water, significantly (P < 0.05) increased the 150-min integrated trypsin and amylase output over basal levels. Beer and fermented glucose caused a significantly higher increase in trypsin and amylase output compared to water or glucose. Ethanol (4% v/v) failed to stimulate pancreatic enzyme output. Fermented glucose and beer, but not the control solutions, significantly increased plasma gastrin levels above basal values. Isotonic and hypertonic glucose, beer, and fermented glucose significantly increased plasma levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), but the effect was significantly higher after hypertonic glucose than after isotonic glucose, beer, or fermented glucose. Ethanol and water had no effect on plasma levels of gastrin and CCK. We conclude that: (1) in the doses studied intragastric beer and fermented glucose but not ethanol (4% v/v) stimulate pancreatic enzyme output and release of gastrin and CCK; (2) the lack of effect of ethanol indicates that nonalcoholic ingredients of beer and fermented glucose are responsible for this stimulatory effect; and (3) CCK could be one of the major mediators of the stimulation of pancreatic enzyme output after ingestion of beer and fermented glucose.
- Pancreatic enzyme secretion
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