Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PLMS change in response to adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) for central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with HF. We examined polysomnographic studies conducted between 2010 and 2014 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (n = 14,444). In those, 314 of 579 patients with CSA completed the sleep study with a protocol that began with diagnostic polysomnography, followed by continuous positive airway pressure, and, for persistent CSA, by ASV titration. Patients with HF (n = 118) had a significantly higher median PLM index compared with those without HF (n = 196): 33.7 versus 6.1 events/h (p <0.001). HF was associated with a significant PLM arousal index (PLMAI) increase from diagnostic trial to ASV (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, p = 0.032) after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities and medications. In patients aged >68 years, HF was associated with PLMI and PLMAI increases during ASV (OR = 2.16, p = 0.016 and OR = 2.05, p = 0.024), which persisted in multivariable models (OR = 2.36, p = 0.025 and OR = 2.33, p = 0.026). In multivariable analysis, patients with ejection fraction ≤45% had higher odds of increased PLMAI during ASV than those with ejection fraction >45% (OR = 1.98, p = 0.022). In conclusion, PLMS may increase in HF patients after suppression of CSA by ASV. Whereas the clinical significance of increased post-ASV PLMS in HF prognosis needs to be determined, these increases may contribute to worsening outcomes in HF patients with CSA treated with ASV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine