Education and occupation as risk factors for dementia: A population-based case-control study

S. Bonaiuto, Walter A Rocca, A. Lippi, E. Giannandrea, M. Mele, F. Cavarzeran, L. Amaducci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

84 Scopus citations


To further investigate the putative associations between education and dementia and between occupation and dementia, we conducted a population-based case-control study. Cases were all subjects affected by dementia ascertained through a prevalence survey conducted in the municipality of Appignano, Macerata Province, Italy. For each case (n = 48), we randomly selected 2 population controls residing in the same municipality and matched for age and sex (n = 96). Information regarding exposures was collected by nonmedical personnel during the first contact for the prevalence survey. Although we found a striking trend toward decreasing prevalence with increasing education, this association was suggestive but not significant after age and sex adjustment at case-control analyses (odds ratio for illiterates = 1.4; 95% CI 0.6-3.1). In contrast, we found a significant association between manual principal lifetime occupation and dementia using both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.4). Our findings suggest that, although education and occupation are related, occupation is a stronger indicator of risk than education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-109
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes



  • case-control studies
  • dementia, prevalence
  • educational status
  • occupations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Bonaiuto, S., Rocca, W. A., Lippi, A., Giannandrea, E., Mele, M., Cavarzeran, F., & Amaducci, L. (1995). Education and occupation as risk factors for dementia: A population-based case-control study. Neuroepidemiology, 14(3), 101-109.