Background-Operative mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is heavily influenced by patient selection and the technical difficulty of surgery. However, how we treat our patients and LVAD setting may affect the patient outcome beyond this period. We postulated that the presence of echocardiographic variables 1 month after surgery suggesting appropriate degree of LV unloading and an adequate forward flow would be important in determining clinical outcomes after the initial successful LVAD implantation. Methods and Results-We retrospectively analyzed various variables in echocardiographic examinations performed 30 days after LVAD implant in 76 consecutive patients receiving continuous flow device for their association with a compound end point (90-day mortality, readmission for heart failure, or New York Heart Association class III or higher at the end of the 90-day period). The echocardiographic associations examined included estimated LVAD flow, with and without native LV contribution, interventricular septal position, the status of aortic valve opening, an estimated left atrial pressure (ELAP), the mitral flow E-wave deceleration time, and the ratio of deceleration time to E-wave velocity (mitral deceleration index [MDI]). Four patients died during the 30- to 90-day period, 6 patients were readmitted for heart failure, and 25 patients were considered to have New York Heart Association class III or higher at the end of the 90-day period. Variables associated with adverse outcome included increased ELAP (odds ratio, 1.30 [1.16 -1.48]; P<0.0001), MDI <2 ms/[cm/s] (odds ratio, 4.4 implantation [1.22-18]; P=0.02) and decreased tricuspid lateral annulus velocity (odds ratio, 0.70 implantation [0.48-0.95]; P=0.02). A leftward deviation of interventricular septum was associated with a worse outcome (odds ratio, 3.03 implantation [1.21-13.3]; P=0.01). Conclusions-Mortality and heart failure after LVAD surgery appear to be predominantly determined by echocardiographic evidence of inefficient unloading of the left ventricle and persistence of right ventricular dysfunction. Increased estimated LA pressure and short MDI are associated with worse mid term outcome. Leftward deviation of the septum is associated with worse outcome as well.
- Left ventricular assist device
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine