Echocardiographic approaches and protocols for comprehensive phenotypic characterization of valvular heart disease in mice

Grace Casaclang-Verzosa, Maurice E Sarano, Hector R. Villaraga, Jordan D Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


The aim of this manuscript and accompanying video is to provide an overview of the methods and approaches used for imaging heart valve function in rodents, with detailed descriptions of the appropriate methods for anesthesia, the echocardiographic windows used, the imaging planes and probe orientations for image acquisition, the methods for data analysis, and the limitations of emerging technologies for the evaluation of cardiac and valvular function. Importantly, we also highlight several future areas of research in cardiac and heart valve imaging that may be leveraged to gain insights into the pathogenesis of valve disease in preclinical animal models. We propose that using a systematic approach to evaluating cardiac and heart valve function in mice can result in more robust and reproducible data, as well as facilitate the discovery of previously underappreciated phenotypes in genetically-altered and/or physiologically-stressed mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere54110
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number120
StatePublished - Feb 14 2017



  • 2D-echocardiogram
  • Animal cardiac imaging
  • Aortic valve
  • Aortic valve stenosis
  • Cardiac function
  • Doppler
  • Isoflurane
  • Issue 120
  • Medicine
  • Strain and strain rate imaging
  • Tissue doppler

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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