Background: Evidence supporting adjunctive corticosteroids during the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) in adults without HIV is minimal and controversial. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included P jirovecii pneumonia-positive, hospitalized patients without HIV admitted to the Mayo Clinic from 2006 to 2016. Change from baseline in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFAresp) at day 5 was compared between early (within 48 h) steroid recipients and nonrecipients by using multivariable logistic regression and in a propensity-matched analysis. Results: Among the 323 included patients (early steroids, n = 258; no steroids, n = 65), the median (interquartile range) age was 65 (53, 73) years, 63% were male, and 92% were white. Severity-adjusted regression and propensity-matched analyses found that early administration of steroids was associated with less improvement in SOFAresp at day 5 compared with no steroids (P = .001 and P = .017, respectively). No differences were observed in the odds of having at least a one-point improvement in SOFAresp at day 5 compared with baseline between groups (adjusted OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.24-2.28]; P = .61). Overall 30-day mortality was 22.9% (95% CI, 18.2-27.4). No differences in mortality, length of stay, admission to the ICU, or need for mechanical ventilation were found between early steroid recipients and nonrecipients. Conclusions: The addition of early corticosteroids to anti-Pneumocystis therapy in patients without HIV was not associated with improved respiratory outcomes.
- immunocompromised host
- respiratory failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine