T cells genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have shown unprecedented results in pivotal clinical trials for patients with B cell malignancies or multiple myeloma (MM). However, numerous obstacles limit the efficacy and prohibit the widespread use of CAR T cell therapies due to poor trafficking and infiltration into tumor sites as well as lack of persistence in vivo. Moreover, life-threatening toxicities, such as cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity, are major concerns. Efficient and sensitive imaging and tracking of CAR T cells enables the evaluation of T cell trafficking, expansion, and in vivo characterization and allows the development of strategies to overcome the current limitations of CAR T cell therapy. This paper describes the methodology for incorporating the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in CAR T cells and for CAR T cell imaging using [18 F]tetrafluoroborate-positron emission tomography ([18 F]TFB-PET) in preclinical models. The methods described in this protocol can be applied to other CAR constructs and target genes in addition to the ones used for this study.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)