Symptomatic urinary stone disease affects approximately 900,000 people in the United States each year resulting in annual medical cost of $5.3 billion (National Kidney and Urological Diseases Advisory Board, 1990). Nephrolithiasis has traditionally been evaluated using radiographic techniques with intravenous (IV) contrast administration. In recent years, however, CT has supplanted these traditional techniques due to increased sensitivity, speed and lack of IV contrast. Furthermore, improved CT acquisition techniques can use less radiation dose than was required for a traditional excretory urogram.
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