Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy (CE) with double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in small-bowel (SB) disease using meta-analysis. Methods: We performed a search of studies comparing CE with DBE in SB disease. Data on diagnostic yield of CE and DBE were extracted, pooled, and analyzed. The weighted incremental yield (IYW) (yield of CE - yield of DBE) of CE over DBE and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for pooled data were calculated using a fixed-effect model (FEM) for analyses without, and a random-effect model (REM) for analyses with, significant heterogeneity. Results: Eleven studies compared CE and DBE; the pooled overall yield for CE and DBE was 60% (n = 397) and 57% (n = 360), respectively (IYW, 3%; 95% CI, -4% to 10%; P = .42; FEM). Ten studies reported vascular findings; the pooled yield for CE and DBE was 24% (n = 371) and 24% (n = 364), respectively (IYW, 0%; 95% CI, -5% to 6%; P = .88; REM). Nine studies reported inflammatory findings; the pooled yield for CE and DBE was 18% (n = 343) and 16% (n = 336), respectively (IYW, 0%; 95% CI, -5% to 6%; P = .89; FEM). Nine studies reported polyps/tumors; the pooled yield for CE and DBE was 11% (n = 343) and 11% (n = 336), respectively (IYW, -1%; 95% CI, -5% to 4%; P = .76; FEM). Conclusions: CE and DBE have comparable diagnostic yield in SB disease, including obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. CE should be the initial diagnostic test because of its noninvasive quality, tolerance, ability to view the entire SB, and for determining the initial route of DBE. Because of its therapeutic capabilities, DBE may be indicated in patients with a positive finding on CE requiring a biopsy or therapeutic intervention, if suspicion for a SB lesion is high despite a negative CE, and in patients with active bleeding.
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