The aims of this study were to determine predictors of abnormal outcome, neurodevelopmental deterioration, new-onset epilepsy, refractory epilepsy, and recurrent status epilepticus in children presenting with status epilepticus. For all children presenting to Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, with status epilepticus between January 1987 and December 1996, demographic data, details of status epilepticus (etiology, duration, treatment, and investigations), developmental milestones, seizures prior to and following status epilepticus, recurrent status epilepticus, and neurologic examination findings at status epilepticus and at follow-up were collected by chart review, patient interview, and neurologic examination. Neurodevelopmental outcome was determined for all subjects except those who died during the initial hospitalization. Predictors of new-onset epilepsy, refractory epilepsy, and recurrent status epilepticus were determined for children followed for 3 months or more after status epilepticus. At follow- up, 79% were abnormal neurologically. Predictors included etiology (nonfebrile or nonidiopathic), perinatal difficulties, preceding developmental delay, abnormal initial neurologic examination; and abnormal neuroimaging. Thirty-four percent showed neurodevelopmental deterioration; predictors included etiology (nonidiopathic or nonfebrile), young age at status epilepticus (12 months or less), and abnormal neuroimaging. Thirty-six percent with no history of seizures preceding status epilepticus developed epilepsy and 25% developed refractory epilepsy. Fifty percent of children had recurrent status epilepticus. In conclusion, very few children presenting in status epilepticus were normal at follow-up. Sequelae were seen predominantly in those with a nonidiopathic, nonfebrile etiology, whereas those with idiopathic or febrile status epilepticus did well.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology