Background: Mutations in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) have been identified in 2 autosomal dominant syndromes: 1) hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1E); and 2) cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy. Both syndromes have mutations in targeting sequence (TS) domain (exons 20-21), which is important in mediating DNA substrate binding to the DNMT1 catalytic domain. Frontal lobe hypometabolism has been documented in an HSAN1E family, but memory loss has been the primary cognitive complaint. The chromosomal location of the DNMT1 gene at 19p13.2 has been linked to familial late-onset Alzheimer disease. Methods: We sequenced 41 exons of DNMT1 and their flanking regions in 1) 2 kindreds with HSAN1E; 2) 48 patients with HSAN1 alone without dementia and hearing loss; and 3) 5 probands of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) kindreds. We also sequenced exon 20 and 21 in 364 autopsy-confirmed late-onset Alzheimer disease cases. Results: Mutations in DNMT1 were specific to 2 HSAN1E kindreds with dementia and hearing loss (no narcolepsy). One family carried previously identified mutation Tyr495Cys; the other carried a novel Tyr495His, both in the TS domain. The symptoms of these patients include prominent personality, psychiatric manifestations, and seizures in one and the onset time is later than the previously reported cases. Conclusion: Clinicians should consider DNMT1mutations in patients presenting with FTD or primary memory decline who also have sensory neuropathy and hearing loss. Amino acid Tyr495 is a hot spot for HSAN1E, distinct from exon 21 mutations associated with narcolepsy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology