The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) genes are involved in base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair of DNA repair pathways, respectively. A growing body of evidence suggests that XRCC1 and XPD are important in environmentally induced cancers, and polymorphisms in both genes have been identified. To determine whether the XRCC1 (codon Arg399Gln) and XPD (codon Asp312Asn and codon Lys751Gln) polymorphisms are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility, we genotyped these polymorphisms in a primarily Caucasian sample of 506 sibships (n = 1,117) ascertained through a brother with prostate cancer. Sibships were analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards model with age at prostate cancer diagnosis as the outcome. Of the three polymorphisms investigated, only the XPD codon 312 Asn/Asn genotype had an odds ratio (OR) significantly different from one (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.03-2.53). Analyses stratified by the clinical characteristics of affected brothers in the sibship did not reveal any significant heterogeneity in risk. In exploring two-way gene interactions, we found a markedly elevated risk for the combination of the XPD codon 312 Asn/Asn and XRCC1 codon 399 Gln/Gln genotypes (OR, 4.81; 95% CI, 1.66-13.97). In summary, our results suggest that the XPD codon 312 Asn allele may exert a modest positive effect on prostate cancer risk when two copies of the allele are present, and this effect is enhanced by the XRCC codon 399 Gln allele in its recessive state.
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