Distinct spatiotemporal accumulation of N-truncated and full-length amyloid-β42 in Alzheimer's disease

Mitsuru Shinohara, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Jeremy Nix, Motoko Shinohara, Naoya Aoki, Pritam Das, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald Carl Petersen, Terrone L. Rosenberry, Dennis W Dickson, Guojun D Bu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; however, it is not clear how individual amyloid-β species accumulate and affect other neuropathological and clinical features in the disease. Thus, we compared the accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β and full-length amyloid-β, depending on disease stage as well as brain area, and determined how these amyloid-β species respectively correlate with clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease. To this end, the amounts of amyloid-β species and other proteins related to amyloid-β metabolism or Alzheimer's disease were quantified by enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or theoretically calculated in 12 brain regions, including neocortical, limbic and subcortical areas from Alzheimer's disease cases (n = 19), neurologically normal elderly without amyloid-β accumulation (normal ageing, n = 13), and neurologically normal elderly with cortical amyloid-β accumulation (pathological ageing, n = 15). We observed that N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 and full-length amyloid-β42 accumulations distributed differently across disease stages and brain areas, while Nterminally truncated amyloid-β40 and full-length amyloid-β40 accumulation showed an almost identical distribution pattern. Cortical N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation was increased in Alzheimer's disease compared to pathological ageing, whereas cortical full-length amyloid-β42 accumulation was comparable between Alzheimer's disease and pathological ageing. Moreover, Nterminally truncated amyloid-β42 were more likely to accumulate more in specific brain areas, especially some limbic areas, while fulllength amyloid-β42 tended to accumulate more in several neocortical areas, including frontal cortices. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that several N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species, represented by pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-42, were enriched in these areas, consistent with ELISA results. N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation showed significant regional association with BACE1 and neprilysin, but not PSD95 that regionally associated with full-length amyloid-b42 accumulation. Interestingly, accumulations of tau and to a greater extent apolipoprotein E (apoE, encoded by APOE) were more strongly correlated with N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation than those of other amyloid-β species across brain areas and disease stages. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining and in vitro binding assays showed that apoE co-localized and bound more strongly with pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-x fibrils than full-length amyloid-β fibrils. Retrospective review of clinical records showed that accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 in cortical areas was associated with disease onset, duration and cognitive scores. Collectively, N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species have spatiotemporal accumulation patterns distinct from full-length amyloid-β42, likely due to different mechanisms governing their accumulations in the brain. These truncated amyloid-β species could play critical roles in the disease by linking other clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3301-3316
Number of pages16
JournalBrain
Volume140
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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Amyloid
Alzheimer Disease
Apolipoproteins E
Immunosorbents
Brain
Brain Diseases

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloid-β
  • apoE
  • neuropathology
  • tau

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Distinct spatiotemporal accumulation of N-truncated and full-length amyloid-β42 in Alzheimer's disease. / Shinohara, Mitsuru; Koga, Shunsuke; Konno, Takuya; Nix, Jeremy; Shinohara, Motoko; Aoki, Naoya; Das, Pritam; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald Carl; Rosenberry, Terrone L.; Dickson, Dennis W; Bu, Guojun D.

In: Brain, Vol. 140, No. 12, 01.12.2017, p. 3301-3316.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shinohara, M, Koga, S, Konno, T, Nix, J, Shinohara, M, Aoki, N, Das, P, Parisi, JE, Petersen, RC, Rosenberry, TL, Dickson, DW & Bu, GD 2017, 'Distinct spatiotemporal accumulation of N-truncated and full-length amyloid-β42 in Alzheimer's disease', Brain, vol. 140, no. 12, pp. 3301-3316. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx284
Shinohara M, Koga S, Konno T, Nix J, Shinohara M, Aoki N et al. Distinct spatiotemporal accumulation of N-truncated and full-length amyloid-β42 in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2017 Dec 1;140(12):3301-3316. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx284
Shinohara, Mitsuru ; Koga, Shunsuke ; Konno, Takuya ; Nix, Jeremy ; Shinohara, Motoko ; Aoki, Naoya ; Das, Pritam ; Parisi, Joseph E ; Petersen, Ronald Carl ; Rosenberry, Terrone L. ; Dickson, Dennis W ; Bu, Guojun D. / Distinct spatiotemporal accumulation of N-truncated and full-length amyloid-β42 in Alzheimer's disease. In: Brain. 2017 ; Vol. 140, No. 12. pp. 3301-3316.
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AU - Shinohara, Mitsuru

AU - Koga, Shunsuke

AU - Konno, Takuya

AU - Nix, Jeremy

AU - Shinohara, Motoko

AU - Aoki, Naoya

AU - Das, Pritam

AU - Parisi, Joseph E

AU - Petersen, Ronald Carl

AU - Rosenberry, Terrone L.

AU - Dickson, Dennis W

AU - Bu, Guojun D

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N2 - Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; however, it is not clear how individual amyloid-β species accumulate and affect other neuropathological and clinical features in the disease. Thus, we compared the accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β and full-length amyloid-β, depending on disease stage as well as brain area, and determined how these amyloid-β species respectively correlate with clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease. To this end, the amounts of amyloid-β species and other proteins related to amyloid-β metabolism or Alzheimer's disease were quantified by enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or theoretically calculated in 12 brain regions, including neocortical, limbic and subcortical areas from Alzheimer's disease cases (n = 19), neurologically normal elderly without amyloid-β accumulation (normal ageing, n = 13), and neurologically normal elderly with cortical amyloid-β accumulation (pathological ageing, n = 15). We observed that N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 and full-length amyloid-β42 accumulations distributed differently across disease stages and brain areas, while Nterminally truncated amyloid-β40 and full-length amyloid-β40 accumulation showed an almost identical distribution pattern. Cortical N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation was increased in Alzheimer's disease compared to pathological ageing, whereas cortical full-length amyloid-β42 accumulation was comparable between Alzheimer's disease and pathological ageing. Moreover, Nterminally truncated amyloid-β42 were more likely to accumulate more in specific brain areas, especially some limbic areas, while fulllength amyloid-β42 tended to accumulate more in several neocortical areas, including frontal cortices. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that several N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species, represented by pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-42, were enriched in these areas, consistent with ELISA results. N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation showed significant regional association with BACE1 and neprilysin, but not PSD95 that regionally associated with full-length amyloid-b42 accumulation. Interestingly, accumulations of tau and to a greater extent apolipoprotein E (apoE, encoded by APOE) were more strongly correlated with N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation than those of other amyloid-β species across brain areas and disease stages. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining and in vitro binding assays showed that apoE co-localized and bound more strongly with pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-x fibrils than full-length amyloid-β fibrils. Retrospective review of clinical records showed that accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 in cortical areas was associated with disease onset, duration and cognitive scores. Collectively, N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species have spatiotemporal accumulation patterns distinct from full-length amyloid-β42, likely due to different mechanisms governing their accumulations in the brain. These truncated amyloid-β species could play critical roles in the disease by linking other clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease.

AB - Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; however, it is not clear how individual amyloid-β species accumulate and affect other neuropathological and clinical features in the disease. Thus, we compared the accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β and full-length amyloid-β, depending on disease stage as well as brain area, and determined how these amyloid-β species respectively correlate with clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease. To this end, the amounts of amyloid-β species and other proteins related to amyloid-β metabolism or Alzheimer's disease were quantified by enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or theoretically calculated in 12 brain regions, including neocortical, limbic and subcortical areas from Alzheimer's disease cases (n = 19), neurologically normal elderly without amyloid-β accumulation (normal ageing, n = 13), and neurologically normal elderly with cortical amyloid-β accumulation (pathological ageing, n = 15). We observed that N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 and full-length amyloid-β42 accumulations distributed differently across disease stages and brain areas, while Nterminally truncated amyloid-β40 and full-length amyloid-β40 accumulation showed an almost identical distribution pattern. Cortical N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation was increased in Alzheimer's disease compared to pathological ageing, whereas cortical full-length amyloid-β42 accumulation was comparable between Alzheimer's disease and pathological ageing. Moreover, Nterminally truncated amyloid-β42 were more likely to accumulate more in specific brain areas, especially some limbic areas, while fulllength amyloid-β42 tended to accumulate more in several neocortical areas, including frontal cortices. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that several N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species, represented by pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-42, were enriched in these areas, consistent with ELISA results. N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation showed significant regional association with BACE1 and neprilysin, but not PSD95 that regionally associated with full-length amyloid-b42 accumulation. Interestingly, accumulations of tau and to a greater extent apolipoprotein E (apoE, encoded by APOE) were more strongly correlated with N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation than those of other amyloid-β species across brain areas and disease stages. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining and in vitro binding assays showed that apoE co-localized and bound more strongly with pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-x fibrils than full-length amyloid-β fibrils. Retrospective review of clinical records showed that accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 in cortical areas was associated with disease onset, duration and cognitive scores. Collectively, N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species have spatiotemporal accumulation patterns distinct from full-length amyloid-β42, likely due to different mechanisms governing their accumulations in the brain. These truncated amyloid-β species could play critical roles in the disease by linking other clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease.

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