Distinct Homologous and Variant-Specific Memory B-Cell and Antibody Response Over Time After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Messenger RNA Vaccination

Iana H. Haralambieva, Jonathon M. Monroe, Inna G. Ovsyannikova, Diane E. Grill, Gregory A. Poland, Richard B. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The durability of protective humoral immunity after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination and infection is largely dependent on the generation and persistence of antigen-specific isotype-switched memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells that reside in the bone marrow and secrete high-affinity neutralizing antibodies. The reactivity of vaccine-induced MBCs to emerging clinically significant SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) is largely unknown. In a longitudinal cohort study (up to 6 months following coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination), we measured MBCs in concert with other functional antibody measures. We found statistically significant differences between the frequencies of MBCs responding to homologous and VoC (Beta, Gamma, and Delta) receptor-binding domains after vaccination that persisted over time. In concert with a waning antibody response, the reduced MBC response to VoCs could translate to a weaker subsequent recall immune response and increased susceptibility to the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains after vaccination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of infectious diseases
Volume226
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 12 2022

Keywords

  • B cells
  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • antibodies
  • humoral immune responses
  • immunological memory
  • neutralizing
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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