We aimed to comprehensively study sex differences in disease and patients' characteristics, treatment and outcomes in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) in the United States (USA) utilizing the National LymphoCare Study registry (2004–2014). Among evaluable males (n = 1277) and females (n = 1375) with FL, females less commonly received anthracyclines and were more likely to receive rituximab monotherapy. Overall response rates were comparable between sex groups. With a median follow-up of 8.1 years, male sex emerged as an adverse factor for PFS (HR, 0.84, 95% CI, 0.72–0.97). Lymphoma-related mortality (HR, 0.46; 0.23–0.93) and overall survival (HR, 0.63; 0.41–0.97) favored females aged ≤60 years. There are subtle differences in outcomes between male and female FL patients diagnosed and treated in the contemporary era. These data represent the largest prospective analysis of FL patients in the USA based on sex and can aid design of clinical trials for this disease. Am. J. Hematol. 91:770–775, 2016.
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