Disease outcomes and biomarkers of progression in smouldering Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Patients with asymptomatic/smouldering Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (SWM) have a variable risk of progression to active WM. Our study evaluated 143 patients with SWM consecutively seen between January 1996 and December 2013. With a median [95% confidence interval (CI)] follow-up of 9·5 [8·1–11·5] years, the cumulative rate of progression was 11% at 1 year, 38% at 3 years and 55% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, haemoglobin (Hb) ≤123 g/l [risk ratio (RR) 2·08; P = 0·009] and β2-microglobulin (β2M) ≥2·7 µg/ml (RR 2·0; P = 0·01) were independent predictors of a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) to active WM. Patients with myeloid differentiation factor 88 wild type (MYD88WT) genotype (n = 11) demonstrated a trend toward shorter TTP [median (95% CI) 1·7 (0·7–8·7) vs. 4·7 (2·4–7·7) years for the MYD88L265P cohort, n = 42; P = 0·11]. The presence of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) mutation (n = 29) did not impact the TTP (median: 3 years for CXCR4WT vs. 5·6 years for CXCR4MUT, P = 0·34). The overall survival (OS) for patients with SWM (median: 18·1 years) was comparable to an age-, sex- and calendar year-matched USA population (median: 20·3 years, P = 0·502). In conclusion, Hb and β2M at diagnosis represent independent predictors of progression to active WM. Comparable survival of SWM and a matched USA population argues against pre-emptive intervention in this patient population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-216
Number of pages7
JournalBritish journal of haematology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • asymptomatic lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
  • CXCR4
  • IgM monoclonal gammopathy
  • MYD88

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


Dive into the research topics of 'Disease outcomes and biomarkers of progression in smouldering Waldenström macroglobulinaemia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this