Background--We investigated whether disease location influences survival in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and Results--Patients (n=12 731; mean age, 67.5±12.7 years; 57.4% male) who underwent outpatient noninvasive lower extremity arterial evaluation were followed up for 5.9±3.1 years for all-cause mortality. Peripheral arterial disease (n=8930) was defined as a resting or postexercise ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤0.90, and normal ABI (n=3 801) was defined as a resting and postexercise ABI of 1.00 to 1.30. Presence or absence of disease at the proximal location or distal location was determined on the basis of Doppler signals in leg arteries; 42% had no proximal or distal disease, 17% had both proximal and distal disease, 28% had proximal only and 14% had distal only. We performed multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with disease location, and Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the respective effects of proximal or distal disease on survival. Older age, male sex, diabetes, heart failure, and critical limb ischemia were associated with distal disease, whereas female sex, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and critical limb ischemia were associated with proximal disease. Over a mean follow-up of 5.9±3.1 years, 3039 patients (23.9%) died. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios (HRs) of death associated with PD only and DD only were 1.3 (1.3 to 1.4) and 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6), respectively. After additional adjustment for resting ABI, there was no significant association between proximal disease and death, whereas the association of distal disease with death remained significant (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.3). Conclusions--In patients with peripheral arterial disease, proximal and distal disease locations were associated with distinctive risk factor and comorbidity profiles. Distal disease was associated with worse survival even after adjustment for risk factors, comorbidities, and resting ABI.
- Peripheral arterial disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine