Direct Comparison of Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Apixaban for Effectiveness and Safety in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

Peter Noseworthy, Xiaoxi Yao, Neena Susan Abraham, Lindsey R. Sangaralingham, Robert D McBane, Nilay D Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


Background The introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has been a major advance for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients and clinicians now have a choice between different NOACs, but there is no direct comparative effectiveness evidence to guide decision-making. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban in clinical practice. Methods Using a large US administrative claims database, we created three one-to-one propensity-score-matched cohorts of patients with nonvalvular AF who were users of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban between October 1, 2010 and February 28, 2015 (rivaroxaban vs dabigatran, n = 31,574; apixaban vs dabigatran, n = 13,084; and apixaban vs rivaroxaban, n = 13,130). The primary outcomes were stroke and systemic embolism (effectiveness) and major bleeding (safety) that occurred during treatment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare outcomes in propensity-score-matched cohorts. Results We found no differences between the three NOACs in the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.75-1.32 for rivaroxaban vs dabigatran; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.51-1.31 for apixaban vs dabigatran; and HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.64-1.72 for apixaban vs rivaroxaban). Apixaban was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36-0.70; P < .001 vs dabigatran and HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.54; P < .001 vs rivaroxaban). Rivaroxaban was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.53; P < .01) and intracranial bleeding (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.12-2.86; P < .05) compared with dabigatran. Conclusions Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban appear to have similar effectiveness, although apixaban may be associated with a lower bleeding risk and rivaroxaban may be associated with an elevated bleeding risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1302-1312
Number of pages11
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • atrial fibrillation
  • bleeding
  • non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Direct Comparison of Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Apixaban for Effectiveness and Safety in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this