We have shown that in embryos treated with ethanol in ovo during days 1-3, a critical period of neuroembryogenesis, cholinergic neuronal phenotypic expression is decreased whereas GABAergic and catecholaminergic neuronal populations are increased as assessed by neuronal markers choline acetyltransferse (ChAT), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) respectively. In this study, ethanol was administered intracerebrally to embryos at embryonic day 8, embryos were sacrificed at day 9 and ChAT and GAD activities assayed separately in cerebral hemispheres and remaining brain (diencephalon-midbrain and optic lobes). We found that ChAT activity was enhanced in the cerebral hemispheres only, whereas GAD activity was decreased in both cerebral hemispheres and remaining brain. We have concluded that the differential responses of neuronal phenotypes to ethanol may reflect compensatory mechanisms to ethanol insult. Moreover, these findings emphasize the vulnerability of the GABAergic neuronal phenotypes to ethanol neurotoxicity during early brain development in the chick.
- GABAergic neuron
- chick embryo
- cholinergic neuron
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience