Background Monoclonal free light chain (LC) proteins are present in the circulation of patients with immunoproliferative disorders such as light chain (AL) amyloidosis and multiple myeloma (MM). Light chain-associated amyloid is a complex pathology composed of proteinaceous fibrils and extracellular matrix proteins found in all patients with AL and in ~10±30% of patients who presented with MM. Amyloid deposits systemically in multiple organs and tissues leading to dysfunction and ultimately death. The overall survival of patients with amyloidosis is worse than for those with early stage MM. Methods and findings We have developed a sensitive binding assay quantifying the recruitment of full length, patient-derived LC proteins by synthetic amyloid fibrils, as a method for studying their amyloidogenic potential. In a survey of eight urinary LC, both AL and MM-associated proteins were recruited by synthetic amyloid fibrils; however, AL-associated LC bound significantly more efficiently (p < 0.05) than did MM LCs. The LC proteins used in this study were isolated from urine and presumed to represent a surrogate of serum free light chains. Conclusion The binding of LC to synthetic fibrils in this assay accurately differentiated LC with amyloidogenic propensity from MM LC that were not associated with clinical amyloid disease. Notably, the LC from a MM patient who subsequently developed amyloid behaved as an ALassociated protein in the assay, indicating the possibility for identifying MM patients at risk for developing amyloidosis based on the light chain recruitment efficacy. With this information, at risk patients can be monitored more closely for the development of amyloidosis, allowing timely administration of novel, amyloid-directed immunotherapiesthis approach may improve the prognosis for these patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)