Background: Altered tumor suppressor genes (TSG-alt) in prostate cancer are associated with worse outcomes. The prognostic value of TSG-alt in metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (M1-HSPC) is unknown. We evaluated the effects of TSG-alt on outcomes in M1-HSPC and their prognostic impact by first-line treatment. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with M1-HSPC at our institution treated with first-line androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel (ADT + D) or abiraterone acetate (ADT + A). TSG-alt was defined as any alteration in one or more TSG. The main outcomes were Kaplan–Meier-estimated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival, analyzed with the log-rank test. Clinical characteristics were compared with the χ2 test and Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test. Cox regression was used for univariate and multivariable analyses. Results: We identified 97 patients with M1-HSPC: 48 (49%) with ADT + A and 49 (51%) with ADT + D. Of 96 patients with data available, 33 (34%) had 1 TSG-alt, 16 (17%) had 2 TSG-alt, and 2 (2%) had 3 TSG-alt. The most common alterations were in TP53 (36%) and PTEN (31%); 6% had RB1 alterations. Median PFS was 13.1 (95% CI, 10.3–26.0) months for patients with normal TSGs (TSG-normal) vs. 7.8 (95% CI, 5.8–10.5) months for TSG-alt (P = 0.005). Median PFS was lower for patients with TSG-alt vs TSG-normal for those with ADT + A (TSG-alt: 8.0 [95% CI, 5.8–13.8] months vs. TSG-normal: 23.2 [95% CI, 13.1–not estimated] months), but not with ADT + D (TSG-alt: 7.8 [95% CI, 5.7–12.9] months vs. TSG-normal: 9.5 [95% CI, 4.8–24.7] months). On multivariable analysis, only TSG-alt predicted worse PFS (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.42–3.96; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The presence of TSG-alt outperforms clinical criteria for predicting early progression during first-line treatment of M1-HSPC. ADT + A was less effective in patients with than without TSG-alt. Confirmation of these findings may establish the need for inclusion of molecular stratification in treatment algorithms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research