Differential activity of PARP inhibitors in BRCA1- Versus BRCA2-altered metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Fadi Taza, Albert E. Holler, Wei Fu, Hao Wang, Nabil Adra, Costantine Albany, Ryan Ashkar, Heather H. Cheng, Alexandra O. Sokolova, Neeraj Agarwal, Adam Kessel, Alan Bryce, Nellie Nafissi, Pedro Barata, A. Oliver Sartor, Diogo Bastos, Oren Smaletz, Jacob E. Berchuck, Mary Ellen Taplin, Rahul AggarwalCora N. Sternberg, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios, Ajjai S. Alva, Christopher Su, Catherine H. Marshall, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE Two poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib and rucaparib) are US Food and Drug Administration–approved for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) harboring BRCA1/2 mutations, but the relative efficacy of PARP inhibition in BRCA1- versus BRCA2-altered mCRPC is understudied. METHODS We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis involving 12 sites. We collected genomic and clinical data from 123 patients with BRCA1/2-altered mCRPC who were treated with PARP inhibitors. The primary efficacy end point was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (≥ 50% PSA decline) rate. Secondary end points were PSA progression-free survival (PSA-PFS), clinical or radiographic PFS, and overall survival. We compared clinical outcomes, and other genomic characteristics, among BRCA1- versus BRCA2-altered mCRPC. RESULTS A total of 123 patients (13 BRCA1 and 110 BRCA2) were included. PARP inhibitors used were olaparib (n = 116), rucaparib (n = 3), talazoparib (n = 2), and veliparib (n = 2). At diagnosis, 72% of patients had Gleason 8-10 disease. BRCA1 patients were more likely to have metastatic disease at presentation (69% v 37%; P = .04). Age, baseline PSA, metastatic distribution, and types of previous systemic therapies were similar between groups. There were equal proportions of germline mutations (51% v 46%; P = .78) in both groups. BRCA1 patients had more monoallelic (56% v 41%; P = .49) and concurrent TP53 (55% v 36%; P = .32) mutations. PSA50 responses in BRCA1- versus BRCA2-altered patients were 23% versus 63%, respectively (P = .01). BRCA2 patients achieved longer PSA-PFS (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 0.92 to 4.09; P = .08), PFS (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 0.99 to 4.40; P = .05), and overall survival (HR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.32 to 6.83; P = .008). Biallelic (compared with monoallelic) mutations, truncating (compared with missense) mutations, and absence of a concurrent TP53 mutation were associated with PARP inhibitor sensitivity. CONCLUSION PARP inhibitor efficacy is diminished in BRCA1- versus BRCA2-altered mCRPC. This is not due to an imbalance in germline mutations but might be related to more monoallelic mutations and/or concurrent TP53 alterations in the BRCA1 group.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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