Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with an impact on global health. Multiple studies have suggested that various dietary factors are associated with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. The purpose of this Review is to provide up-to-date knowledge on the impact of dietary factors on BP and hypertension, to compare types and recommended intakes of dietary factors in hypertension management and prevention guidelines from different countries and organizations, and to outline global population-based healthy-diet strategies for hypertension control. Of the 27 dietary factors we evaluated on the basis of specified review criteria, 17 have been proposed to have protective effects against hypertension, six were proposed to be risk factors for hypertension, and the association between BP and the remaining factors was considered inconclusive. Excessive sodium intake is a causal risk factor for hypertension, whereas a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in sodium and saturated fat has been recommended to prevent and reduce hypertension on the basis of strong evidence. Notable differences exist in the recommended types and intakes of dietary factors among available hypertension management and prevention guidelines. Available evidence supports the vigorous implementation of dietary strategies against hypertension through population-based, national action plans.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine