Dietary carbohydrates modulate metabolic and β-cell adaptation to high-fat diet-induced obesity

Tracy K. Her, William S. Lagakos, Matthew R. Brown, Nathan K. LeBrasseur, Kuntol Rakshit, Aleksey V. Matveyenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dietary carbohydrates modulate metabolic and cell adaptation to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 318: E856-E865, 2020. First published April 21, 2020; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00539.2019.-Obesity is associated with several chronic comorbidities, one of which is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM is influenced by alterations in diet macronutrient composition, which regulate energy expenditure, metabolic function, glucose homeostasis, and pancreatic islet cell biology. Recent studies suggest that increased intake of dietary carbohydrates plays a previously underappreciated role in the promotion of obesity and consequent metabolic dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we utilized mouse models to test the hypothesis that dietary carbohydrates modulate energetic, metabolic, and islet adaptions to high-fat diets. To address this, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 12 wk of 3 eucaloric high-fat diets (60% calories from fat) with varying total carbohydrate (1-20%) and sucrose (0-20%) content. Our results show that severe restriction of dietary carbohydrates characteristic of ketogenic diets reduces body fat accumulation, enhances energy expenditure, and reduces prevailing glycemia and insulin resistance compared with carbohydrate-rich, high-fat diets. Moreover, severe restriction of dietary carbohydrates also results in functional, morphological, and molecular changes in pancreatic islets highlighted by restricted capacity for cell mass expansion and alterations in insulin secretory response. These studies support the hypothesis that lowcarbohydrate/ high-fat diets provide antiobesogenic benefits and suggest further evaluation of the effects of these diets on cell biology in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E856-E865
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume318
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - May 20 2020

Keywords

  • cell
  • high-fat diet
  • insulin
  • ketogenic diet
  • obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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