Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine short- and long-term excess mortality associated with diastolic echocardiographic measures (primarily E/e′ ratio) in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Background: In patients with heart failure (HF), Doppler echocardiography diastolic alterations are frequently but not convincingly linked to survival. Consequently, they are not included in risk-score algorithms or substantially mentioned in HF guidelines. Methods: Consecutive patients with HF Stage B to C, diagnosed between 2003 and 2011, with ejection fraction <50%, Doppler diastolic characterization, complete clinical evaluation, and estimated pulmonary pressure, were analyzed. Outcome measure was mortality under medical management. Results: The 12,421 eligible patients were 69 ± 14 years of age, 32% were women, 72% had Stage C HF, with ejection fraction 36 ± 10% and E/e′ ratio of 17 ± 9. During median follow-up 4.0 (1.1 to 7.0) years, 1-year and 5-year mortality were 17 ± 0.4% and 42 ± 0.5%. E/e′ ratio >20 was linked to elevated 1-year mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 to 1.83]; p = 0.001). Long-term E/e′ ratios >20 and >14 to 20 were associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% CI: 1.07 to 1.37]; p = 0.003, and adjusted hazard ratio: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.02 to 1.29]; p = 0.02), independent of all HF characteristics and in all patients’ subsets, including HF Stage B and Stage C. Guideline-based diastolic-grade algorithm also independently predicted mortality (p < 0.0001) but was definable less frequently (70%). Conclusions: In reduced ejection fraction HF, diastolic Doppler alterations entail considerable mortality independent of all presentation characteristics. Elevated E/e′ ratio, associated with worse HF at diagnosis, is also, independent of presentation, linked to substantial short-term reduced survival and long-term sustained excess mortality and should be incorporated into HF risk assessment.
- diastolic function
- heart failure
- left ventricular dysfunction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine