Introduction: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is an important modality for diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disease, but there are limited data regarding the diagnostic yield of endoscopy in Cameroon and changes in the prevalence of endoscopic findings over time. Our aims were to describe the diagnostic utility of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy, the impact of periodic on-site mentorship on cecal intubation rate and changes in the prevalence of common upper gastrointestinal findings when compared to a similar report from our region published in 1990. Methods: Retrospective review of all EGD and colonoscopy procedures performed during 2015 at a regional referral hospital in North West Region, Cameroon, with comparison to EGD findings reported by Dent and colleagues in 1990. During the year 3 endoscopists provided periodic colonoscopy mentorship. Results: Among 1,371 EGDs, abnormalities were found in 59.7% and therapeutic interventions (most commonly esophageal stricture dilation or band ligation of varices) were performed in 137 (10%). When compared to 25 years previously, peptic ulcer disease was less common and esophagitis was more common (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of malignancy (2.2%) was similar. Among 380 colonoscopies diagnostic findings were seen in 60.5%, including colorectal malignancies in 5.8%. Cecal intubation rate improved from 32% to 89% during the one-year study period. Conclusion: EGD and colonoscopy have a diagnostic yield of about 60% in symptomatic patients in North West Region, Cameroon. When compared to 1990 peptic ulcer disease was less common and esophagitis was more common. Periodic on-site mentorship was associated with improved physician performance of colonoscopy.
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