Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) is a valuable adjunctive tool that can provide real-time diagnostic information in surgery that has the potential to alter patient management and decrease complications. Lesion localization, characterization and staging can be performed, as well as surveying for additional lesions and metastatic disease. IOUS is commonly used in the liver for hepatic metastatic disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, in the pancreas for neuroendocrine tumors, and in the kidney for renal cell carcinoma. IOUS allows real-time evaluation of vascular patency and perfusion in organ transplantation and allows for early intervention for anastomotic complications. It can also be used to guide intraoperative procedures such as biopsy, fiducial placement, radiation, or ablation. A variety of adjuncts including microbubble contrast and elastography may provide additional information at IOUS. It is important for the radiologist to be familiar with the available equipment, common clinical indications, technique, relevant anatomy and intraoperative imaging appearance to optimize performance of this valuable imaging modality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging